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        飲食與健康         ★★★

        研究性學習   www.mudamusic.com   歡迎轉載  
         
        飲食與健康  
         
        作者:溫嶺中學 文章來源:溫嶺中學 點擊數: 更新時間:2008/6/28 20:09:43  
         
           飲食與健康

        班級:200610C2

        課題名稱:飲食與健康

        負責人聞佳媚

        課題組成員聞佳媚(組長) 蔡佳音 周婷 孫珊珊 朱羅佳

        指導老師蔡海勇(物理老師)

        主導學科:生物

        非主導學科語文,化學,生活

        中文摘要:雞蛋中的膽固醇,跟平日所指的對身體有害的膽固醇其實沒關系,因為有害膽固醇是由飽和脂肪轉化而成,雖然雞蛋含少量飽和脂肪,但雞蛋中的膽固醇是可以被人體消化;再加上雞蛋中其中一種成分———卵磷脂可以中和有害膽固醇,所以吃得雞蛋多不會令膽固醇過高。

        許多國家自古以來就稱魚是可使人聰明的食物;中國民間也傳說吃魚可以健腦。魚含動物蛋白和鈣、磷及維生素A、D、B1、B2等物質,比豬肉、雞肉等動物肉類都高,且易為人體消化吸收,其吸收率高達96%。由于魚肉肌纖維較細,有多量可溶性成膠物質,結構柔軟,這些就更適合病人、中老年人和兒童食用。

        一般人都說,魚身上最好吃的是“眼睛”,魚眼不僅味道好,而且營養豐富,不輸于魚肉。魚眼球內側含有豐富的維生素A、B1和B2,特別是迦納魚的眼球,含有大量的各種維生素,將迦納魚的眼球用鹽水腌,或把魚眼和魚骨頭一起煮湯,營養價值都是最高的。

        菠菜的營養很豐富,它含有多量礦物質及維生素,特別適合兒童食用,對小朋友的骨骼成長絕對有幫助。
        兒童易受到大氣污染、射線及各種化學物質的傷害,在體內產生帶電荷的自由基,這種自由基會損害細胞,使人體重要器官喪失部分功能,記憶力減退,學習成績下降,而菠菜中的抗氧化劑能吸收有害的自由基,從而使人體生長發育正常。

        在冬天,吃以下食物最容易發生食物中毒:
        1、大棚培育的蔬菜水果。大棚種植的植物對農藥需要量較大,再加上冬季寒冷,植物進行光合作用時不能完全將農藥吸收,所以,清洗不凈會導致冬季吃蔬菜水果時農藥中毒。
        2、腐爛的白菜。大白菜的葉子中含有較多的硝酸鹽,腐爛后其含量會明顯增高。一旦大量進食,經腸道細菌作用,會還原成亞硝酸鹽而發生中毒。主要表現為頭暈、嘔吐等,嚴重的會出現呼吸困難、血壓下降。為防止中毒,應避免蔬菜在高溫下長時間堆放。
        3、生豆漿。其中含有一種有毒的胰蛋白酶抑制物,飲用后容易中毒。所以,豆漿一定要徹底煮熟后飲用。需要提醒的是,豆漿加熱到一定程度后會出現泡沫,這并不意味著它已經煮熟了,應繼續加熱5—10分鐘,至泡沫消失才可飲用。
        4、發芽或未成熟的馬鈴薯。其中含有有毒物質龍葵素,攝入后易引起中毒。冬天應把馬鈴薯貯藏在低溫、無陽光直接照射的地方;燒煮時可加入少許的醋,能夠破壞毒素。
        5、霉變甘蔗。其毒性非常強,進食2—8小時后會出現嘔吐、頭暈、頭痛等癥狀,嚴重者還會昏迷、呼吸衰竭,病死率及出現后遺癥率達50%,目前尚無有效治療措施。

        ……

        英文摘要:

        Don't be swayed by claims like 'fat-free' and 'only 50 calories'. Look for what they don't tell you and try to compare them with similar products to make sure they're not giving the misleading impression that they’re healthier than they really are.

        Some 'healthy' ready meals are high in salt - sometimes higher than the standard version. Low-fat desserts can be full of sugar. Don't assume household brand-names or economy packs compare unfavourably with supposedly 'healthier' foods either. A Sainsbury's 'Be Good to Yourself' range Balance breakfast cereal boasts less than three per cent fat, but ordinary cornflakes contain half as much. And both Shredded Wheat and Weetabix have more than twice as much fibre as Balance has.

        An EU-wide review of food labelling aims to tighten up inconsistencies that allow products that are high in salt to boast that they're low-fat, for example, as well as banning health claims that don't have scientific backing. According to a new European regulation that has been in effect in the UK since 1 July 2007, health claims should only be authorised if they are clearly understood by the average consumer.

        By the time the legislation comes into force in 2009, food producers must be able to prove to the European Food Safety Authority that any claims can be backed up by evidence. Products that are high in calcium, for instance, can legitimately claim that calcium is good for bones. Oats have been shown to help reduce cholesterol as part of a low-fat diet and this claim could be made on a product. There is nothing in the legislation specifically covering claims for omega-3.

        Ready, steady, go for low

        The Government wants to help consumers make healthy choices, and that's why it's encouraging a labelling system designed to show at a glance what's in the food. The 'traffic light' scheme marks the salt, sugar and fat content of the food in red if it's high, green for low and amber for medium.

        The colour code has been adopted by Sainsbury's, the Co-op, Marks and Spencer, Asda and Waitrose on their own-brand ready meals, pizzas, soups and other convenience foods, making comparison between dishes easier and helping shoppers switch from high-fat, salty ready meals. However, Tesco and some food manufacturers have introduced their own rival labelling system showing the calories, sugars, fats and salt as a percentage of the guideline daily allowance (GDA) of each in a serving.

        However, there's no quick-to-spot colour code to show whether the fat, sugar or salt content is considered high, making it harder to see how meals compare. Serving sizes may be unrealistically small, too, so it's often difficult to get a true picture of the fat, salt or calorie content in a portion. You have to look closely to discover that Tesco's 'Healthy Living' chicken jalfrezi contains 38 per cent of the guideline daily amount of salt while its 'Healthy Living' turkey, tomato and lettuce sandwich has 35 per cent of the salt GDA.

        1. Start with exercise. A healthy diet is built on a base of regular exercise, which keeps calories in balance and weight in check. 

        2. Focus on food, not grams. The Healthy Eating Pyramid doesn’t worry about specific servings or grams of food, so neither should you. It’s a simple, general guide to how you should eat when you eat.

        3. Go with plants. Eating a plant-based diet is healthiest.  Choose plenty of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and healthy fats, like olive and canola oil.

        4. Cut way back on American staples. Red meat, refined grains, potatoes, sugary drinks, and salty snacks are part of American culture, but they’re also really unhealthy. Go for a plant-based diet rich in non-starchy vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. And if you eat meat, fish and poultry are the best choices.

        5. Take a multivitamin, and maybe have a drink. Taking a multivitamin can be a good nutrition insurance policy. Moderate drinking for many people can have real health benefits, but it's not for everyone. Those who don’t drink shouldn’t feel that they need to start. For more information, read "Alcohol: Balancing Risks and Benefits."

         

        關鍵詞飲食與健康

        要解決的問題:飲食與健康的關系,如何正確飲食

        問題假設:良好的飲食習慣有利于身體健康,中學生應該養成良好的飲食習慣

        基本方法資料查閱法 訪談法 問卷調查法

        基本過程

        時間

        任務

        目標

        方法

        第6、7周

        確定課題

        按時、具體、有意義

        資料查詢

        8、9周

        開題報告

         

        資料查詢

        10周

        開題論證

         

        小組討論

        11、12周

        資料篩選

        提出初步假設

        假設法,統計

        13、14周

        展開討論

        了解情況

        統計

        15周

        得出結論

        進一步了解情況

        統計

        16周

        廣案驗證

         

         

        18、19周

        結題

        結題

         

         

         

         
         
         
         

         
         
         
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